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Graphene & Emerging 2D Materials for Photonics Applications

Thursday 12th October 2017

This is the UK's only meeting dedicated to graphene for photonics and optoelectronic applications.

This meeting features graphene technology and integration, latest innovations in the deposition of graphene layers (processes, difficulties, solutions and achievements to date), photonics applications, graphene in components (such as light sources, connectors, detectors, sensors and optical sensors) and takes a good look at emerging applications as well.

PROGRAMME

SESSION 1 : CHAIR  
10.40 KEYNOTE SPEAKER
Graphene photonics and optoelectronics
Prof Andrea Ferrari, Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, UK

Andrea Ferrari is Professor of Nanotechnology and Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award Holder. He is the Director of the Cambridge Graphene Centre and Head of the Nanomaterials and Spectroscopy Group at the University of Cambridge Engineering Department and Nanoscience Centre. He is Professorial Fellow of Pembroke College.

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11.10 Fabrication 2D materials and heterostructures: technology and processes
Dr Ravi Sundaram, Oxford Instruments, UK,

Two dimensional materials are gaining a lot of interest as a possible strategy for pushing the scaling limits as well as for heterogeneous integration in micro/nano electronics. Fabrication of 2D materials and electronic devices require tailored solutions for the deposition and etch of these atomically thin materials. In this talk, I will present the technology and processes developed at Oxford Instruments for the atomic scale processing and quality control of 2D materials. This will include equipment and processing for deposition and etching of 2D materials by CVD, ALD and ALE as well as deposition of high k dielectrics on such materials for optimum device performance.  In addition, the possibility of creating novel functional architectures by in situ deposition of 2D heterostructures will also be outlined. 

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11.30 Wafer scale integration of 2D materials on Si photonics platform.
Dr Anna Baldycheva, University of Exeter, UK
11.50 Ionic solutions of 2D materials
Dr Chris Howard, UCL, UK

If nanoparticles can be dispersed in liquids, such inks can then be used to paint or cast the nanoparticles into functional films or composites in a way that is industrially scalable. In this talk, I will discuss our recent work [1] in which we describe novel methods for exfoliating layered materials in liquids to form true solutions of negatively charged 2d materials. This process maintains the morphology of the starting material, is stable against reaggregation and can achieve solutions containing exclusively individualised monolayers. Importantly, the charge on the anionic nanosheet solutes is reversible, enables targeted deposition over large areas via electroplating and can initiate novel self-assembly upon drying. Our findings thus reveal a unique solution-like behaviour for 2D materials that enables their scalable production and controlled manipulation.

[1] Ionic solutions of 2-dimensional materials, Cullen et al. Nature Chemistry 9, 244–249, (2017).

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12.10 Optical plasmonic modulators based on 2D materials
Professor Sasha Grigorenko, University of Manchester

The abstract: “We discuss light modulators based on 2D materials. We show that plasmons can be used to enhance the modulation strengths and the wavelength range in which modulation can be achieved. Various promising architectures of graphene based modulators will be discussed and the importance of dielectrics for graphene gating will be emphasized. We show that it is possible to achieve strong and fast near-infrared and even visible light modulation with proper choice of solid dielectrics. We also consider all optical schemes of light modulation based on nonlinear light mixing using graphene plasmons.”

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12.30 End of morning session  
SESSION 2: CHAIR :  
13.55 Introduction to session.  
14.00 KEYNOTE SPEAKER
Graphene wafer scale integration
Richard White, Graphenea, Spain

Graphenea aims to develop the potential of graphene for electronic systems by means of combining large-scale graphene synthesis and conventional CMOS technology into an industrial compatible process. GRAPHENEA is scaling up graphene production for semiconductor industry, developing the quality control equipment and demonstrating the technology in a real devices: UV LEDs, health monitoring, night vision, wifi receivers, hall sensors, among others

There is presently no standard graphene growth and integration process (both required for manufacturing of end-devices in industry) that could form a solid basis for a value chain. Therefore, what we propose with our product is exactly to fill this need and launch two new products in the form of a CMOS-fab compatible: graphene in 200mm and an in-line QC testing equipment.

Graphene on 200mm wafers by Graphenea

The CMOS compatible graphene product will be large scale 200mm, with low metal contamination levels and with potential for large production volume in order to obtain cost competitive rates. The industrial production method should be able to produce uniform, large scale/high performance graphene in high yields and reliable manner.
The selected approach is chemical vapour deposition (CVD) where the graphene is formed on metallic substrates such as copper (Cu) when at high temperatures (1000ºC) a carbon source (methane) is injected into the reactor.

High quality and uniform graphene can be obtained up to 100mm wafer scale. This method is the only one that has shown potential for industrial scalability. We propose the scale up of our current graphene production on Cu from 100mm up to 200mm. This new manufacturing process will increase our throughput rate thus decreasing manufacturing costs. In order to detach the graphene from the Cu catalyst, a transfer process is performed and the graphene will be deposited on the final substrate (typically Si). Furthermore, this transfer process can be optimized in order to obtain low metal contamination levels.

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14.30 Emerging photonics applications enabled by printed non-carbon two-dimensional materials
Dr Zlatka Stoeva, DZP Technologies, UK

Non-carbon two dimensional (2D) materials include several groups of chemical compounds which, similarly to graphene, exist as monolayers of unusual properties. In contrast to graphene, these 2D materials have a tunable bandgap which enables their use in various photonic and optoelectronics applications. This presentation will outline recent progress at DZP Technologies Ltd in the development of new functional inks and formulations comprising 2D transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum sulphide (MoS2) and tungsten sulphide (WS2). Importantly, the new aqueous inks and formulations are designed for environmentally friendly manufacture which eliminates the use of organic flammable and toxic solvents, offering significant economic and technical benefits.    
These printable inks can be used to produce photonic and optical devices of unusual form factors and specifications. Examples include thin, flexible sensors, detectors, and imaging devices, which can be integrated into clothes, paper, or structural components such as electronic enclosures, windows and walls. These technologies create opportunities for new functionalities in smart phones, wearables, and connecting with the Internet of Things.

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14.50 Extremely high-temperature molecular beam epitaxy of graphene and boron-nitride
Professor Sergei Novikov, University of Nottingham, UK

We will discuss growth of graphene and boron-nitride (BN) layers by high-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at substrate temperatures between 1000 and 1700oC. We have studied the growth of boron nitride and graphene using a custom-designed, dual chamber, high-temperature MBE system. The dual chamber GENxplor was specially modified to achieve growth temperatures of up to 1850oC in ultra-high vacuum conditions and is capable of growth on rotated substrates of up to 3 inches in diameter. Our work demonstrates a new high-temperature approach to the MBE growth of epitaxial graphene and boron nitride.

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15.10 Tomorrow's materials, available today
Neill Ricketts, Versarian Plc, UK

Versarien utilises proprietary materials technologies to create innovate engineering solutions that are capable of having game-changing impact in a broad variety of industry sectors as well as customer-specific applications. After initial success with micro-porous metallic foams, Versarien has grown to now include hard wearing materials manufacturing, plastics manufacturing and is having success with its university spin-out companies 2-DTech Ltd. and Cambridge Graphene Ltd. which are leading graphene development and manufacturing.

Versarien offers a range of graphene products suitable for developing tomorrow’s technologies. Versarien’s portfolio of subsidiaries are graphene ready, being able to leverage its links to University of Manchester and University of Cambridge, as well as partnerships with UK centres of excellence, to provide innovative solutions using its graphene products and other advanced materials.

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15.30 Graphene protected plasmonics for ultrasensitive toxin biosensing
Fan Wu, University of Manchester, UK

Graphene is known to possess a set of unique properties useful for various applications1. Among them is impermeability to atoms which makes graphene an efficient protecting covering2. Combined with the absence of transverse conductivity, graphene can serve as a protector of plasmonic properties of metals that otherwise subject to oxidation3. As a result, ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing can be realized on the basis of graphene protected copper3. Here we present an ultrasensitive graphene biosensor based on SPR where graphene is not only used to protect metal plasmonics but also serves a role of a biofunctionalized surface. The graphene SPR chips were fabricated by transferring CVD graphene on Cu film evaporated on a glass substrate. The surface of graphene was functionalized by anti-HT-2 Fab antibody fragment. Biosensing was performed in buffer solutions containing different concentrations of HT-2 toxin. The amplitude SPR detection limit was ~1pg/mL which is several orders of magnitude lower than the values reported before4. The phase sensitivity of graphene protected copper SPR was two orders of magnitude better than the amplitude one which pushes the detection limit to 10fg/mL. Our approach can result in novel biosensors with extremely high sensitivity.

1    Geim, A. K. & Novoselov, K. S. The rise of graphene. Nat Mater6, 183-191 (2007).
2     Chen, S. et al. Oxidation Resistance of Graphene-Coated Cu and Cu/Ni Alloy. ACS Nano5, 1321-1327, doi:10.1021/nn103028d (2011).
3      Kravets, V. G. et al. Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics. Sci. Rep.4, 5517, doi:10.1038/srep05517 (2014).
4      Arola, H. O. et al. Specific Noncompetitive Immunoassay for HT-2 Mycotoxin Detection. Analytical chemistry 88, 2446-2452, doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.5b04591 (2016).

F. Wu1,2*, P. Thomas1, V. G. Kravets1, H. O. Arola3, M. Soikkeli3, A. N. Grigorenko1

1 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK
2 School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, 710049, China
3 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo, Finland

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15.50 Concluding comments and end of meeting
  The exhibition remains open until 5pm  




The 2017 Conference and Industry Programme, run by Enlighten Meetings with its partners, covers application and technology advances, innovations and emerging technologies.

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TECHNICAL PROGRAMME COMMITTEE

Ray Whitehouse
Vac Techniche, Fairlight

Dr Weiping Wu

Instrumentation and Sensor Systems,
City University of London

Dr Andrew Pollard
Surface and Nanoanalysis Group,
National Physical Laboratory, Teddington

Dr Adrianus Indrat Aria
Surface Engineering & Nanotechnology Institute, Cranfield University, Bedford

Dr Patrick Frantz
PlanarTECH

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