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Graphene & Emerging 2D Materials

Thursday 11th October - Theatre 2, Ericsson Exhibition Hall

This meeting will feature the latest innovations in the deposition of graphene layers, difficulties, solutions and achievements to date, as well as applications, particularly for photonics applications, such as light sources, connectors, detectors, sensors and optical sensors - MORE>


09:00 Registration opens in the atrium
10:55 Introduction and welcome
11:00 High Detectivity and Transparent Photodetectors Enabled by Novel Few- Layer MoS2/Glassy-Graphene Heterostructures
Mr Hao Xu, University College London, UK

Layered van der Waals heterostructures have attracted considerable attention recently, due to their unique properties both inherited from individual two-dimensional (2D) components and imparted from their interactions. Here, we report a few-layer MoS2/glassy-graphene heterostructure, synthesised by a layer-by-layer transfer technique, and its application as transparent photodetectors[1]. Instead of a traditional Schottky junction, coherent ohmic contact was formed at the interface between the MoS2 and the glassy-graphene nanosheets. The device exhibited pronounced wavelength selectivity as illuminated by monochromatic lights. The effect of the number of layers on photodetectors were also compared. A responsivity of 12.3 mA/W and detectivity of 1.8×1010 Jones were obtained from the photodetector under 532 nm light illumination. In the periodic photocurrent transient measurements, reproducible device on/off switch was demonstrated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed the impact of specific carbon atomic arrangement in the glassy-graphene on the electronic band structure. We demonstrated that the band alignment of the layered heterostructures can be manipulated by lattice engineering of 2D nanosheets to enhance optoelectronic performance.

[1] H. Xu, X. Han, X. Dai, J. Wu, H. Liu, et al. High Detectivity and Transparent Few-Layer MoS2/Glassy-Graphene Heterostructure Photodetectors. Adv. Mater. 2018, 30, 1706561.

11:20 FDTD Modelling on Nonlinearity of Graphene at Terahertz Spectrum
Liang Yang, Queen Mary College, University of London, UK

Nonlinear responses, such as frequency multiplication and frequency-mixing effect, have inspired researchers to design various optic devices with useful functionalities. At terahertz (THz) spectrum, graphene, a two-dimension carbon material, has been expected to exhibit nonlinear response due to its linear energy dispersion spectrum neat its Dirac point, which promises novel applications at the THz spectrum. In terms of numerical modelling methods assisting device design, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modelling method is proposed to simulate the nonlinear responses of graphene at the THz spectrum [1]. The proposed method is based on a formula characterising the relation between nonlinear currents in graphene and electric fields in illumination. Simulation results successfully demonstrate odd-harmonic generations as well as frequency-mixing effects. The effects of chemical potential (i.e. the carrier density) on the nonlinear responses are also investigated. The proposed modelling method is expected to support the design of graphene-based nonlinear devices.

[1]         L. Yang, J. Tian, K. Z. Rajab, and Y. Hao , “FDTD Modeling of Nonlinear Phenomena in Wave Transmission Through Graphene,” vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 126–129, 2018.

11:40 2D Material Liquid Crystal Nanocomposites for Photonic Applications
Ben Hogan, University of Exeter, UK

2D material liquid crystals (2DLC) hold great promise as drivers of a revolution in the development of optoelectronic and photonic devices. By combining the exotic and varied properties, within the few-layer limit, of the ever-expanding body of exfoliatable layered materials (graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, MXenes, etc.), with the inherent reconfigurability of liquid crystals under applied fields, novel nanocomposites with huge potential can be produced.These materials inherently possess several properties that make them of significant interest, such as: fluidity, hence they can be readily integrated into microfluidic systems; reconfigurability under applied electric field, magnetic field and thermal gradients; and scalability of the synthetic routes for these materials.
Here, we present characterisation results for a number of different 2DLC nanocomposites. We synthesise, characterise and move toward application of 2D material liquid crystalline nanocomposites for optoelectronic and photonic devices, focussing on those produced using graphene oxide, tungsten disulfide and boron nitride.

12:00 The Journey to Commercialisation of Graphene
Matthew Thornton, Haydale Composite Solutions Ltd

Many industrial sectors, including automotive, aerospace and space, as well as everyday consumables, continue to benefit from the ever-improving weight and performance advantages of nanomaterial-enhanced engineered polymer, composite and elastomer materials. However, there remains significant technical challenges to overcome if the full potential of these materials is to be fully utilised. Haydale is leading development projects that are seeking to provide commercial solutions that address requirements of these sectors including electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, vibration dampening, amongst others. This talk will provide details of how the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene, are being commercialised and case studies will be presented covering the application of Haydale developed nanomaterial-enhanced materials

Matthew has a BSc (Hons) in Chemistry with Chemical Engineering and a PhD, in Materials Science and Engineering, researching the Catalytic Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes on 3D Carbon Fibre Supports carried out in collaboration with Meggitt Aircraft Braking Systems.

Following various roles with academia, government bodies and industry, working with polymers, composites and nanomaterials, Matthew joined Haydale Composite Solutions in April 2016 and is responsible for the management of a range of nanocomposite materials research, development and manufacturing programmes in both the commercial and grant funded sectors.

12:20 Break - delegates are encouraged to visit the exhibition
14:00 Next-generation large-area transfer-free graphene for optoelectronic and semiconductor applications
Dr Ivor Guiney, Chief Technology Officer, Paragraf Ltd

Graphene has been long-speculated for use in many electronic applications due to its high conductivity, flexibility and lightweight properties. However, this potential has been impeded due to the lack of availability of high-quality, reproducible graphene on attractive substrates without the use of metal catalysts to seed growth, or the need for manual transfer of the material.

Paragraf, a recent spin-out from the University of Cambridge’s Department of Materials Science, has solved these issues. In addition to direct graphene on substrates, the graphene material produced exhibits uniformity, yield and batch-to-batch reproducibility in line with existing semiconductor material processes, a requirement for mass production. Additionally, the graphene can be functionalised without impacting on the electrical performance of the material.

This talk will focus on Paragraf’s developments, technologies and graphene electronic device progress.

14:20 Graphene-based integrated photonics for next generation datacom and telecom
Prof Andrea Ferrari, Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, UK




14:50 Raman characterisation of 2D materials and heterostructures
Dr Tim Batten, Renishaw Plc

Raman spectroscopy is a non-contact, non-destructive analytical technique that provides sub-micrometre information on the vibrational, crystal and electronic structure of materials. It is the ideal method for investigating 2D materials as it can be used to determine layer number, stress/strain and electronic properties. Recent advances in instrumentation has made characterisation of these materials easier and more comprehensive, adding features such as ultrafast mapping (>1000 spectra/s), low wavenumber filters and automatic sample focus tracking capabilities.

Here we present data highlighting the versatility of Raman spectroscopy as a technique for understanding 2D materials. We will discuss LiveTrack™, a revolutionary Raman surface tracking technique that allows accurate Raman imaging of large, uneven samples, including industrially grown graphene on metal foils (Figure 1). We also present data collected from ReS2 (a transition metal dichalcogenide) using ultra-low frequency Eclipse filters, allowing straight forward determination of the thickness of ReS2 flakes (figure 2). These results are compared to those obtained by elastic light scattering measurements (Rayleigh mapping) to evaluate this new technique.

15:10 Industrial usage of graphene in corrosion protection coatings
Bernhard Münzing,The Sixth Element (Changzhou) Materials Technology Co, Ltd


Graphene, theoretically the atomic layer of graphite, can now be produced on large industrial scale. Most of these processes generate few layer graphene. This sets the focus on how graphene can be incorporated into real industrial applications. The Sixth Element has established a proprietary process to manufacture different types of graphene with specific designed properties for different applications.

Research on how to use graphene in coatings started already 2013 with the focus to reduce zinc in solvent based corrosion protection coating systems. In standard primers with high zinc content, zinc acts as cathodic sacrifice layer, as zinc is more ignoble metal, therefore protecting the underlaying metal substrate. When the zinc is more and more oxidized, the resulting zinc oxide is building up a barrier, which prevents the attack of the surrounding media (water, salt) auf the metal substrate. The idea now was to design a graphene type, being electrical conductive enough to support any cathodic function of the system and being able to act as a barrier without producing a battery cell. A further requirement was that such a graphene can be processed with standard equipment used in the coating industry.

Cooperating with an industrial partner in China, Toppen Co, the graphene type SE1132 was developed. It is a few layer graphene (maximum 15 layers) with a medium conductivity. Addition of 1 % SE1132 to an epoxy primer system and reducing the zinc content to 25 % (based on dry substance) did show significant improvements in salt spray testing and water condensation testing compared to a standard zinc rich epoxy primer. The results have been confirmed by measuring the corrosion current of such a system. The 1 % addition shows the lowest corrosion current. In China Sixth Element has received a patent for this development. Based on independent tests of Chinese authorities the system containing 1 % graphene (based on dry substance) is approved for off-shore applications. The system was first applied to protect the steel construction of an off-shore wind energy tower in 2015. Meanwhile more off-shore projects have used this system. Contrary to this, in Europe the development of such systems is in the prototyping stage.

Also, in water-based systems, results of prototypes show that graphene enhances corrosion protection significantly. 

Educated as Economic Engineer (Wirtschaftsingenieur) Bernhard Münzing (57) started his career at BASF selling fibre reinforced prepreg-systems mainly to the aerospace and sports industry. He then joined L. Brüggemann, a medium sized chemical company, with the responsibility for materials management (purchasing and logistics) and introduction of new products to the market. After short period as Sales Manager for a small paint company producing varnish for painters, he worked for more than 17 years for GELITA, the world leading gelatine manufacturer. Covering all potential applications areas for gelatine – food, pharma and technical – he helped customers to adopt the gelatine product during the critical phase of the BSE disease, followed by a position in business development for more than 10 years. This included the introduction of a new product line to the food market, establishing a new production technology for a special gelatine and launching gelatine based formulations into the metal processing industry (mainly aluminium).  Aside that he was responsible key account manager for one of the largest GELITA customers in Asia. Since July 2016 he is with The Sixth Element, a leading supplier of different graphene products responsible for all markets outside China with focus on EMEA region.   

15:30 The Good The Bad and the Ugly: lessons learned from 20 years of building advanced materials businesses
Tim Harper, Foxbat



15:50 Concluding comments and close of meeting

  The exhibition remains open until 16:00

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Ray Whitehouse
Vac Techniche Ltd, Fairlight

Dr Weiping Wu
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, City, University of London

Dr Adrianus Indrat Aria
Surface Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute, Cranfield University, Bedford

Patrick Frantz
PlanarTECH (UK), Cambridge